Onychia – Inflammation of matrix (the surrounding tissue of a nail) is the symptom called Onychia. Formation of pus in the affected area some times leads to shedding of the nail.

Onychocryptosis – This is commonly known as ingrown nails. Here the nails cut into the sides of the nail bed. This situation can be effectively treated by cutting nails properly.

Onychodystrophy – This is the most serious nail disorder. Deformation of nails is the main symptom of Onychodystrophy. So discoloration and deformation of any nail demands serious attention. Consult a medical practitioner to rule out the possibilities of cancer.

Onychgryposis – thickening nail is the symptom of Onychgryposis. It may be a result of an injury to the surrounding tissue. ESome times it can be a hereditary one. Total neglect of the nail can also be a cause for this.

Onycholysis – Loosening of the nail from the nail beds indicates Onycholysis. Reason can be fungal infections or use of cheap nail enhancement products or it can even be the side effect of a drug. Effective treatment plan can be suggested by a doctor upon diagnosing the basic cause for the disease.

Onychomadesis – Falling of nail is called Onychomadesis. Reason can be the injury to matrix bed. Treating the injury to the matrix bed can often solve the problem

Onychomycosis – Discoloration, thickening, chalkiness and crumbling of nails come under this category of disease. Application of tea tree oil is said to be very effective to Onychomycosis.

Onychoptosis – Shedding of nails is a result of Onychoptosis. The cause may be diseases like syphilis, fever, and trauma or drug reaction. Correct diagnosis and treatment of the root cause can often prevent Onychoptosis.

Paronychia – Bacterial or fungal infection in the areas where skin and nail meets is the reason for Paronychia. Anti fungal/ bacteria medicines are effective cure to this disease.

Koilonychia – Upward curve of the skin may be due to iron deficiency. This disease can be treated by intake of iron supplements under medical guidance.

Subungnanhematoma – Clotting of blood under the nail leads to Subungnanhematoma. Reasons may be undersized shoe, minor trauma or acute injury.

In day to day life we face some other problems which we can effectively treat our selves without much effort.
White spots – It is a commonly seen problem of nail. Minor trauma or knock against some hard object can be the reason for this. Some times it may be hereditary also. Those who work regularly with hands also are seemed to be affected by white spots.
This needs no special treatment. It will grow out with nails.
Pitting - Some times this is hereditary. In other cases it can be result of trauma certain illnesses like psoriasis, eczema.
Treating the cause may help.

Nail thickness – Diseases like fungal infection and psoriasis are the main cause behind nail thickness. Apart from this, ageing process and trauma can also be cited as reasons for nail thickness.
It can be cured by treating the cause disease.
Vertical splitting – those who are constantly in contact with water are seemed to be affected by vertical splitting.
Zinc and iron intake is recommended for vertical splitting. Massaging using almond oil is also suggested to be an effective remedy for vertical splitting.

Separation of nails from nail bed – Over exposure to detergents and over time typing or catching the nail on something could be the reasons for separation of nails.
Using rubber gloves while using detergents, cutting nails according to size and filing it and also intake of iron and zinc helps in curing this type of nail problem.

Other nail problems:
Black nail – Acute trauma, jamming finger or nails in a door are cited as causes behind black nail. In this case nail may some times fall off.
Hang nail - This is usually a self inflicted problem. Biting and picking at the nails and aggressive self manicuring are usually the causes behind hang nail.
Fungal nail – Discoloration of the nail is the symptom of fungal infection. It can be yellow, black or green in colour. Diabetes or constant contact with water can be the causes.
Brittle nail – Organic silica is said to be effective for increasing growth of nail. Intake of essential fatty acid's vitamins B 12 and B5 will help to remedy brittle nail.

The linear depressions that usually appear across the finger nails are clinically known as Beau's lines.
Causes for Beau's lines:

Injury or damage to nail can lead to Beau's lines. Injuries to a nail includes crushing of the nail or the nail bed or both, excessive picking or rubbing of the skin under the nail, problems arising out of the long term use of acetone based nail removing lotion and nail colours.
Prolonged diseases like pneumonia, syphilis, heart attack, coronary occlusion and hypocalcaemia can also be the reasons behind this nail disorder.

The symptoms of Beau's lines are also found in patients suffering from peripheral vascular diseases and uncontrolled diabetes.

The symptoms of Beau's lines have been diagnosed in new born babies and normally these signs on infants will disappear after the expiry of first month of their birth.
Some times Beau's lines may appear on nail as a temporary cessation in the growth of nail due to loss of immunity as a result of prolonged diseases especially the diseases that is followed by severe fever. The beau's lines on adult man's nail usually disappear with the normal growth of his nail.
Beau's lines may also appear on nails as a result of malnutrition. Deficiency of zinc and other essential vitamins can cause this type of nail disorder. One has to improve his regular diet to avoid further formation of Beau's lines on nails.
A severe stroke that affects the growth of the nail area under the cuticle may create a temporary formation of Beau's lines on nails.

Treatment for Beau's lines
No specific treatment is available to treat Beau's lines. It is therefore advisable to seek the assistance of a medical practitioner to find out the actual cause behind the problem.

Precautions against Beau's lines
Keep your nails trimmed always to avoid accumulation of dust under nails.
To retain the lost moisture, apply a quality moisturizer on your hands and nails after every wash.
Applying moisturizer on your hands before you go to bed is good to keep your hand healthy and beautiful.
Stop using acetone based nail polish.
Formation of Beau's line may go unnoticed if you are in a habit of wearing of nail polish always. Leave your nails free in its original state at least for ten days every month

As the very term indicates fungi causes fungal infections on nails. If left unattended fungal infections get aggravated and can result in acute pain. Appearance of small spots, white or yellow in colour, is the first symptom of a fungal infection. With the spread of fungus into the deeper parts of your nail bed, nail will start to thicken. Discolouration and crumbling of nail are some other common symptoms of nail fungal infections
Wearing sweat shoes continuously for long hours and too much exposure of nails to moisture can be cited as the primary causes for nail fungal infections.

These types of fungi live in warm moist conditions and easily get into your skin through minor cuts between your nail and nail bed while in such an environment. Swimming pools and showers are the places where you can see them commonly.

Compared to finger nails, toe nails are more prone to fungal infections as the feet often remain in moist conditions as a result of wearing sweaty socks or closed foot wears for long. It is in these conditions that the fungi like to live.

The recurring nature of fungal infections on nails makes it difficult to treat effectively. Medicines are available and effective if detected early.

What makes this disease more complicated is the permanent damage caused to nail and acute pain.
It is advisable to consult a medical practitioner as soon as you detect symptoms of fungal infection on your nail.

By take the following precautions you can prevent your self from fungal infections:
Avoid walking bare footed in public places.
Keep your nails clean and tidy always
Use gloves to avoid over exposure to water
Never bite your nails. If you have such a habit, drop it immediately.
Choose right sized shoes and wear only cotton socks during summer season
Avoid wearing artificial nails and nail polish for a long time.
Make it a habit to sprinkle anti fungal powder into your shoes before you wear them.
Avoid too much trimming of nails and cuticles.
Wash your hands thoroughly after touching an infected area.
Role of Hydrogen peroxide in treatment of fungal infection
Hydrogen peroxide has long been used as an excellent cleaning agent. It has been usually used in cleaning wounds by physicians and as an anti septic and anti bacterial agent.

Bacterial infections to the nails, a very common cause to nail deformity, can be identified by swelling, pain, discoloration of nails, appearance of pus under nails and deformation of nails. Nails may appear red in colour while infected by bacteria.

These symptoms occur when bacteria enter in to the skin that surrounds the nail. Nails are so designed by Mother Nature so as to resist any probable invasion of bacteria under normal circumstances. However cracks and other injuries to cuticles or to the skin under the nails may open a gate way to bacteria to infect the nails and the protected areas under it.

Common causes for bacterial infections
Aggressive filing of nails using sharp metallic objects while under going manicure or pedicure. Rude file of nails cause damage to the nail bed and tips thereby creating cracks which would enable the bacteria to attack.

Digging of the sides of the nail using sharp tools to remove dirt from the sides and under side of the nails. This can open up small cracks on the sides and underside of the nails which can result in bacterial infections and once they enter the skin it will start attacking the healthy tissues and there by causing acute pain and discomfort in the affected areas.
External shocks and injuries resulting in cracks and breaks on the nails allows the entry of bacteria into the body thus causing infections.

Bacterial infections that affect the nail folds are clinically known as bacterial paronychia. This may cause acute pain in the affected area. Swelling, erythema and discomfort in and around the nails are the most commonly seen symptoms of bacterial paronychia. Presence of pus in the affected area is another common symptom of the disease. It is not safe to treat this condition without consulting a doctor.

Preventive measures against nail problems
Following are some tips to prevent nail disorders that may occur due to are our negligent attitude towards nails:

Undergo routine nail treatment
If you want to keep your finger and toe nails healthy and disinfected, you have to undergo a routine nail treatment without any fail. It simply requires a few minutes to give your hands, feet, finger and toe nails a special care and attention through a wash using mild soap and lukewarm water.

Check for swelling, discoloration, cracks, cuts and redness of nails
Never take a negligent attitude towards any disorders like swelling, discoloration, cracks cuts or redness of nails. These could be indications of trouble to your internal organs. Discoloration of nails can be a symptom of diseases like diabetes, liver or kidney failures or it can even be a symptom of heart problem. So whenever there is an unusual colour change on your nails provide immediate attention to it. Diabetes patients should take utmost care of the wounds, cuts, and cracks that may appear on nails to avoid complications.

Keep your nails neatly trimmed always
A neatly trimmed nail will rule out the possibility of bacterial infection under the nails and there by transferring directly them to one's mouth.

Avoid cutting down to the corners of the nail
While you are shaping nails take care of not to cut down to the corners of nails. There is a chance for getting infected.
Avoid digging the sides of nails

You do not have to dig the sides of nails to remove dirt from there. You can safely remove dirt from this area by applying diluted Hydrogen peroxide.

Corners of nails should not be filed
Filing of corners of nails may weaken the nails

Drop the habit of nail biting

Apply sun block cream on your nails whenever you go out
Too much exposure to sun light or ultra violet rays is damaging to nails also. Like skin, nails also demand protection from harsh sunrays by application of sun block creams.

Massage your nails
Not only the skin but also the nails require some massaging to improve its texture by increasing the level of blood circulation. Give an occasional massage to your nail by rubbing it.

Drink plenty of water
Plenty of water intakes is essential for the health of skin as well as nails.

Take care of the size of your shoes
Commonly men who are wearing tight, undersized shoes in hot and humid weather conditions are seen to be affected by 'athlete's foot' disorder.. If possible walk bare-footed at home. Always keep your feet dry.

Avoid constant contact of nails with water
In the situation where you have to soak your fingers in water for a long time, protect your nails by wearing gloves.

Follow a healthy diet
Including protein rich food in your regular diet will improve health of your nails. Vegetables like broccoli, carats, spinach etc. will help you to improve your over all health condition.

Nail is not a tool
Do not use your nails as a tool. Jamming of nails in doors and things like that is a common problem arising out of using nail as a tool. It may ultimately lead to black nail and falling off of nails.
Never walk bare footed in public places
Those who are walking in public places without wearing shoes will be affected by Onychomycosis.
Do not use manicure or pedicure equipments used by others
Using manicure and pedicure tools used by others without sterilizing them may lead to serious health problems.
Avoid the situation by ensuring that the equipments are sterilized when you visit a beauty saloon.
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